Nonantibody Biologics

Special Report on Antibody-Drug Conjugates: Technical Challenges and Opportunities

Among the emerging targeted therapies in biotechnology, antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) hold a unique position. An ADC consists of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) with affinity to tumor cells, a cytotoxic small-molecule payload, and a linker connecting the two. Together the MAb, conjugation chemistry, and cytotoxin increase the complexity of ADCs several-fold relative to unmodified MAbs — and exponentially relative to chemotherapies. Viewing ADCs as hybrids of antibody- and chemotherapy-based cancer therapies is tempting. That description applies chemically and structurally, but ADCs’…

Bacteriophages, an Alternative to Antibiotics: Challenges and Possible Solutions for Bringing Them to Market

Bacteriophages are viruses (consisting of a genome contained within a protein coat) that specifically infect bacteria. They are the most abundant living entities on earth — the estimates range from 1030 to 1032 in total — and play key roles in regulating the microbial balance in every ecosystem where that has been explored (1). Bacteriophages are genotypic and phenotypically different from viruses that infect Archaea (Archaeovirus) and Eukarya (Eukaryovirus). The name bacteriovirus has been proposed as scientifically more accurate (2).…