Filtration

Setting the Stage

Much has already been written lately about addressing the so-called “downstream bottleneck(s).” A number of companies are leading the way toward developing products and platforms for reducing both the costs and the time required for downstream processing. Our task with this special issue was to provide a state-of-the-art update on these activities — but as always, within a limited number of pages allotted. The primary issue behind this bottleneck debacle is to address purification challenges posed by aggregation in cell…

A Presanitized, Purpose-Designed, Single-Use TFF Strategy

    For many years, biopharmaceutical manufacturers have worked to increase capacity, address upstream production issues, and improve product yields. Notable successes recently achieved in upstream technology have significantly increased expression rates and therefore, upstream production capacities. Successes in generating higher titers combined with increasingly stringent quality and regulatory requirements have led to a number of challenges in aligning the efficiency of downstream processing with upstream titers. It is generally recognized that downstream processing costs account for about 70% of…

Use of Membrane Technology in Bioprocessing Therapeutic Proteins from Inclusion Bodies of

The ultimate goal of recombinant fermentation research is cost-effective production of desired proteins by maximizing volumetric productivity (to obtain the highest amount of protein in a given volume in the least amount of time). Bioprocessing for recombinant proteins using genetically modified organisms requires a stable, high-yielding recombinant culture, a highly productive fermentation process, and cost-effective recovery and purification procedures. Escherichia coli has been a widely used host for expression of recombinant proteins (1). Its advantages lie in the enormous data…

The Reoccurrence of Mycoplasma Contamination: Prevention Strategies

    The contamination of microbiological media by mycoplasmas such as Acholeplasma laidlawii is not a recent phenomenon. It has been a major problem with animal-derived sera since the 1980s and has been a concern in the management of cell cultures for decades. The main culprit of serum contamination was the inadequate blood collection methodology and was eliminated with the introduction of hollow collection needles. In addition to the introduction of an improved collection method, serum was filtered with 0.1…

TFF Membranes for High MAb Concentration

In a typical monoclonal antibody (MAb) purification process, immediately after cell culture and supernatant clarification (its objective being to remove whole cells, cell debris, and particulates), the protein product is typically bound to an affinity chromatography resin and then recovered by elution using a buffer solution. Once recovered, the resulting protein solution is further purified through additional chromatography and virus clearance steps before being concentrated until a final solution is ready for filling and finishing operations. PRODUCT FOCUS: MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIESPROCESS…

Integrity Testing Low-Area Filters Using Air–Water Diffusion and an Automatic Integrity Tester

Both FDA and EMEA guidelines require integrity testing of filters used in processing sterile solutions such as large- and small-volume parenterals (LVPs and SVPs). The same regulatory agencies also require that corresponding test documentation be included with batch product records. PRODUCT FOCUS: PARENTERALSPROCESS FOCUS: DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING, SCALE-UPWHO SHOULD READ: QA/QC, PROCESS ENGINEERS, AND ANALYTICAL PERSONNELKEYWORDS: FILTRATION, INTEGRITY TESTING, VALIDATION, AUTOMATIONLEVEL: BASIC The function of integrity testing is to determine whether a particular filter is within or outside the validated specifications…