PAT

A Powerful Pairing

Biological product and process characterization are not new to this quality by design (QbD) and process analytical technology (PAT) era. In the 1990s we saw the FDA introduce the concept of well-characterized biologics: an acknowledgment that analytical technology had advanced to the point where the bioprocess did not necessarily (or not fully, anyway) define a biopharmaceutical product. That ultimately led to the regulation of some types of products within the United States moving from the purview of FDA’s Center for…

Implementation of Quality By Design in Vaccine Development

At the IBC Third Annual International Forum on Vaccine Production, I presented an outline of “Best Practices for Quality by Design (QbD) in Biological Products and How to Implement in Vaccines.” It covered process development and QbD principles, best practices used in biologics, how QbD fits in with process validation, how it applies to vaccines, and some thoughts on the potential for seasonal vaccines. Shifts in Process Development Classic process development (as practiced in the early days) generally involved rudimentary…

Manufacturing Culture

Life sciences company leaders need to put the right people, processes, and technologies in place to create evolutionary cultures. Such cultures would embrace advanced manufacturing process intelligence and reap related business benefits. Since the late 1990s, my software company has helped biomanufacturers improve their process understanding. In that time, we’ve seen regulatory drivers such as quality by design (QbD) and process analytical technology (PAT) guidances call for improved manufacturing process performance through better process understanding and optimization. We define process…

Biophysical Analysis of Living Cells

Adecades-old technology is finally emerging from clinical laboratories and demonstrating its utility in drug discovery and development. Cell therapy researchers bring their laboratory experiences with them as their science is commercialized. And as biopharmaceutical production engineers incorporate quality by design (QbD) and process analytical technology (PAT) into their work, they find that a method for monitoring the state and distribution of living cells can help build valuable upstream process knowledge. In flow cytometry, cells are suspended in fluid to flow…

Process Optimization of Biosimilars Production Using NMR Profiling

With a compound annual growth rate potential of ∼52% during 2010–2015 (1), the global biosimilars market represents a significant driver in biologics development and manufacture. Increased competition, quality-by-design (QbD) directives, and rising costs are compelling biosimilars manufacturers to search for advanced technologies they can use in optimizing production processes to remain competitive and maximize new opportunities. Here, we discuss biomanufacturers’ needs for robust, standardized cell-culturing procedures that comply with QbD directives. We also describe an effective new NMR-based bioanalysis technology.…

Novel Single-Use Sensors for Online Measurement of Glucose

    According to an FDA guidance document, process analytical technology (PAT) tools “are intended to support innovation and efficiency in pharmaceutical development” (1). The agency encourages manufacturers to use a PAT framework for developing and implementing effective innovative approaches in development, manufacturing, and quality assurance. The sensors described here are one possible response to the requirement of systems by analyzing and controlling critical cultivation parameters with real-time process measurements.   Working Principle   Glucose was measured using a #CITSens…

Measuring kLa for Better Bioreactor Performance

Knowledge of kLa (the volumetric mass-transfer coefficient that describes the efficiency with which oxygen can be delivered to a bioreactor for a given set of operating conditions) is not new. Here I provide information for those who are unfamiliar with the measurement method and/or issues that must be considered when making these measurements. Advances in this area now make it advisable to run kLa measurements routinely in many bioprocesses. The Importance of Measuring kLa Before examining the process theory and…

Noninvasive Optical Sensor Technology in Shake Flasks

In process development, appropriate scaling is important to achieve acceptable product quality without compromising titer (1). Scale-down approaches involve matching the oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) value, impeller tip speed, power per unit volume, or mixing time to those of a bioreactor (2). Bench-top bioreactors are typically used in bioprocess engineering as scale-down models of commercial units in fermentation and cell culture because of their similarity in geometry (H/D ratio) and mechanical properties (agitation type and sparging). By contrast, shaking culture…

Limited Analytical Technologies Are Inhibiting Industry Growth

    Progress in the development of bioprocessing-related assays and analytical instrumentation has not kept up with industry demands. The industry wants analytical technologies (especially for single use) to help improve productivity, optimize and monitor processes, provide real-time product quality control, and characterize biosimilars. These trends are reflected in our recent survey data. Over 30% of biopharmaceutical manufacturers and contract manufacturing organizations (CMOs) have expressed demands for improved assays and analytical equipment (1). BioPlan Associates’ eighth annual survey of biopharmaceutical…

Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance for Bioprocess Development, Monitoring, and Validation

    Academic laboratories have embraced localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) as the “new wave” of label-free technology (1). This technique is based on the ability of colloidal metal nanoparticles or nanostructured metallic films to absorb light in a narrow wavelength range. Metal nanostructures “sense” changes occurring at their surfaces by shifting the frequency of the light they absorb or reflect. As a consequence, a basic LSPR system requires only optical fibers, a source of white light, and a detector…