Author Archives: Jerry King

Photo 1: Standard one-bottle position in chamber

Validation of Controlled Freezing and Thawing: A 9-L Bottle Study

Freeze–thaw processes affect the quality of biopharmaceutical proteins (1–13) and human cells (14). It has been reported that no method consistently controls freezing and thawing rates for biological formulations (1). My recent study refutes that claim with validated rate-controlled freezing and thawing of such formulations in 16-L single-use bags (15). The study reported herein presents a consistent method for controlled-rate freezing and thawing of bottled formulations. It also highlights the effect of load and container position on freeze rates. The…

Photo 4: Standard four-bag positions in chamber

Validation of Controlled Freezing and Thawing Rates: A 16-L–Bag Study

It is well understood that freeze– thaw processes affect the product quality of biopharmaceuticals (1–3). It has been reported that there is no consistent method of controlled freezing and thawing rates for biological formulations (4). Traditionally, ultralow temperature storage chambers that were not designed for freezing have been used to provide an energy state for the environment surrounding the product with very little excess capacity to change the state of the product. This study details a consistent method for controlled-rate…